In July 2014, researchers from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Qingdao Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, and the Institute of Zoology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences published the latest research on plant stomatal movement in the internationally renowned academic journal Plant Cell. The results, entitled "Closely Related NAC Transcription Factors of Tomato Differentially Regulate Stomatal Closure and Reopening during Pathogen Attack", with informative data, several closely related tomato NAC transcription factors can be differentially identified during pathogen attack. Adjust the closing and opening of the air holes.
The author of this article is Li Chuanyou, a researcher at the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He graduated from Shandong Agricultural University in 1991 with a bachelor's degree. In 1994, he graduated from Shandong Agricultural University with a master's degree. In 1999, he obtained a doctorate from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. From 1999 to 2003, he was a postdoctoral fellow at the MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory. In 2003, he was selected into the "Hundred Talents Program" of the Academy of Sciences, and the winner of the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars in 2004. The main research direction is the physiological function and mechanism of jasmonic acid. He has published many papers in internationally renowned journals such as PNAS, Plant Cell, The Plant Journal, Plant Physiology, Plos Genetics, New Phytologist, and Cell Research.
For millions of years, plants have coexisted with microbes, including bacterial pathogens, and the interactions between these organisms have allowed them to evolve together. Pathogens have evolved strategies to promote their virulence in the host, and plants have developed a variety of complex innate immune systems to combat pathogen attacks.
Pathogenic microorganisms need to reach the inside of the plant to cause disease, and natural openings or accidental wounds provide a gateway to the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms. A stomata is a tiny pore formed by a pair of epidermal guard cells. Plants can actively adjust stomatal opening to optimize non-biological environmental conditions (such as light, humidity, and CO2 concentrations) to optimize gas exchange and moisture loss. By studying the molecular mechanisms of stomatal regulation in response to abiotic signals, researchers have discovered a complex and dynamic regulatory network in which the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role.
Historically, stomata have only been assumed to be passive ports for pathogen entry. However, recent studies have shown that stomatal opening is a major pathway for pathogens to enter plants. Therefore, plants have evolved a mechanism to actively regulate stomatal pore size as an integral part of the innate immune system to prevent the invasion of pathogens.
In the study of the susceptibility interaction between the host Arabidopsis thaliana and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strain DC3000, the role of stomata in plant immunity was found. The system of action to study the underlying molecular mechanisms of pathogen virulence, host immunity, and host-pathogen co-evolution.
The discovery of stomatal defense prompted researchers to conduct further research to uncover downstream signaling pathways involved in bacterial triggering stomatal closure and opening. In addition to SA, the phytohormone ABA, known to be important for stomatal regulation in response to abiotic stresses, plays a crucial role in the regulation of stomatal closure triggered by P. s. tomatoâ€“ and PAMP. These results suggest that guard cell signaling in response to biotic and abiotic stresses has a common step. However, the signal events downstream of the ABA are still largely unknown. In particular, it is unclear whether pathogen infection leads to an increase in ABA biosynthesis in the stomata, or whether pathogen/PAMP-triggered stomata closure requires only a basic ABA level in the guard cell.
In this study, the researchers investigated the stomatal immune response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and reported the different roles of two homologous NAC transcription factors (JA2 and JA2L) in regulating stomatal movement triggered by pathogens. Studies have shown that ABA-mediated activation of JA2 expression, JA2 genetic manipulation suggests that it plays an active role in ABA-mediated stomatal closure. JA2 produces this effect by modulating the expression of an ABA biosynthetic gene. In contrast, JA and COR activate JA2L expression, and JA2L genetic manipulation suggests that it plays an active role in JA/COR-mediated stomatal opening. The study indicated that JA2L produces this effect by modulating the expression of genes involved in salicylic acid metabolism. Therefore, these closely related NAC proteins can differentially regulate pathogen-induced stomatal closure and reopen the stomata through different mechanisms. These findings provide new insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of stomata response caused by pathogen infection.
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